Hjbuenodemesquita.jouwweb.nl
Speech of a daughterHome » 1-3-2011 Griep preventie/behandeling......sinusitus etc

1-3-2011 Griep preventie/behandeling......sinusitus etc

Green tea catechins and theanine may be effective prophylaxis for influenza infection...........Second article: sambucus, in Israel as sambucol


I can’t stop wondering what drives the "medical establishment" still to push people [and to make them nervous] to take flu shots 

I sent you already many articles about other options.

Now another 2 other articles again.

By the way: sambucus [second article]may help against many bacterial infections of the respiratory tract as well [also ear infections,sinusitis]



Effects of Green Tea Catechins and Theanine on Preventing Influenza Infection among Healthcare Workers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Keiji MatsumotoHiroshi YamadaNorikata TakumaHitoshi Niino and Yuko M. Sagesaka 

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11:15doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-15


Published:

21 February 2011

Background

Experimental studies have revealed that green tea catechins and theanine prevent influenza infection, while the clinical evidence has been inconclusive. This study was conducted to determine whether taking green tea catechins and theanine can clinically prevent influenza infection.

Methods

Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 200 healthcare workers conducted for 5 months from November 9, 2009 to April 8, 2010 in three healthcare facilities for the elderly in Higashimurayama, Japan. Interventions: The catechin/theanine group received capsules including green tea catechins (378 mg/day) and theanine (210 mg/day). The control group received placebo. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of clinically defined influenza infection. Secondary outcomes were (1) laboratory-confirmed influenza with viral antigen measured by immunochromatographic assay and (2) the time for which the patient was free from clinically defined influenza infection, i.e., the period between the start of intervention and the first diagnosis of influenza infection, based on clinically defined influenza infection.

Results

Eligible healthcare workers (n = 197) were enrolled and randomly assigned to an intervention; 98 were allocated to receive catechin/theanine capsules and 99 to placebo. The incidence of clinically defined influenza infection was significantly lower in the catechin/theanine group (4 participants; 4.1%) compared with the placebo group (13 participants; 13.1%) (adjusted OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.76, P = 0.022). The incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza infection was also lower in the catechin/theanine group (1 participant; 1.0%) than in the placebo group (5 participants; 5.1%), but this difference was not significant (adjusted OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.01 to 1.10; P = 0.112). The time for which the patient was free from clinically defined influenza infection was significantly different between the two groups (adjusted HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.84; P = 0.023).

Conclusions

Among healthcare workers for the elderly, taking green tea catechins and theanine may be effective prophylaxis for influenza infection.


 

Research article

Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses

Christian Krawitz , Mobarak Abu Mraheil Michael Stein , Can Imirzalioglu email.gifEugen Domann email.gifStephan Pleschka email.gif andTorsten Hain email.gif

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine2011, 11:16doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-16

 

Published:

25 February 2011



Background

Black elderberries (Sambucus nigra L.) are well known as supportive agents against common cold and influenza. It is further known that bacterial super-infection during an influenza virus (IV) infection can lead to severe pneumonia. We have analyzed a standardized elderberry extract (Rubini, BerryPharma AG) [my remark: in Israel:sambucol]for its antimicrobial and antiviral activity using the microtitre broth micro-dilution assay against three Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, as well as cell culture experiments for two different strains of influenza virus.

Methods

The antimicrobial activity of the elderberry extract was determined by bacterial growth experiments in liquid cultures using the extract at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The inhibitory effects were determined by plating the bacteria on agar plates. In addition, the inhibitory potential of the extract on the propagation of human pathogenic H5N1-type influenza A virus isolated from a patient and an influenza B virus strain was investigated using MTT and focus assays.

Results

For the first time, it was shown that a standardized elderberry liquid extract possesses antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria ofStreptococcus pyogenes and group C and G Streptococci, and the Gram-negative bacterium Branhamella catarrhalis in liquid cultures. The liquid extract also displays an inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses.

Conclusion

Rubini elderberry liquid extract is active against human pathogenic bacteria as well as influenza viruses. The activities shown suggest that additional and alternative approaches to combat infections